New York City’s doorways, storefronts and cascading fire escapes were the grand backdrop to Helen Levitt’s photos. In the Lower East Side and Harlem, children pretended to be bride and groom, wore masks for Halloween or drew with chalk on the sidewalk. The lyricism of her work led her to be called the city’s visual poet laureate, supposedly an apolitical, black-and-white photographer of the everyday.
“Helen Levitt is often described as a lyrical and poetic photographer and in my opinion, that is very often the description for female photographers or women artists,” said Walter Moser, the curator of a new retrospective at the Albertina in Vienna. The exhibit challenges the prevailing, romantic narrative found in essays and critiques done mostly by men. The first culprit — perhaps unintentionally — was the writer James Agee, whom Ms. Levitt met through her mentor, Walker Evans. In an essay that later became the introduction to her book “A Way of Seeing,” he wrote in 1946 that “at least a dozen of Helen Levitt’s photographs seem to me as beautiful, perceptive, satisfying, and enduring as any lyrical work I know.”
But that praise also obscured her intent. “Scholars say that Helen Levitt wasn’t political at all, and I think that is actually not true, because she was part of highly intellectual circles,” Mr. Moser said. Ms. Levitt said as much in an interview with National Public Radio. “I decided I should take pictures of working class people and contribute to the movements,” she said. “Whatever movements there were — Socialism, Communism, whatever was happening.”
What was happening was the Depression. The Farm Security Administration, a New Deal project created in 1937, had been sending photographers like Mr. Evans to document rural poverty. Their images promoted recovery programs for farmers and were probably the most comprehensive visual survey to date of the people, culture and places of rural America.
At the time, New York was abuzz with leftist activism. The Communist Party U.S.A. (a name that varied) had just moved its headquarters from Chicago to Union Square. Many Eastern European Jews were active in the movement, including photographers. Ms. Levitt, the daughter of a Russian-Jewish immigrant, was influenced by the Photo League and its leader, Sid Grossman, who urged members to photograph with a social awareness. Ms. Levitt reflected that concern, capturing children’s battle games that echoed World War II.
Another myth is that she relied on a right-angled viewfinder, supposedly to stealthily photograph her subjects. But contact sheets in the exhibit’s catalog show different stages of her interactions with her subjects, including when they stared right into her lens. The final chosen image was often one that seemed most candid.
“Levitt actually very often selected a picture where apparently the photographed people are not aware of the photographer,” Mr. Moser said. “But, when you compare these selected images with the other variants, or the negative strip, or the contact sheet, it becomes clear that very often the people knew about the photographer.”
Ms. Levitt was born in the Bensonhurst neighborhood of Brooklyn, in 1913. She worked for a commercial photographer in the Bronx where, for six dollars a week, she learned darkroom basics. But a 1935 exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery led her to discover the work of Henri Cartier-Bresson, whom she would later meet, and Mr. Evans, to whom she showed her photos of children. Mr. Evans and Ms. Levitt later collaborated most famously on their subway photographs.
Taking an interest in film, she became a full-time film editor and director. By the 1950s had made a second career out of her films, one of which was a collaboration with James Agee, and had been nominated for an Academy Award. She returned to photography in 1959 after receiving a Guggenheim fellowship for her street scenes, but this time in color.
In fact, Ms. Levitt was a pioneer of color photography. But again, she was upstaged by men. Joel Meyerowitz, Stephen Shore and William Eggleston have always been hailed as the pioneers of fine-art color photography, but Ms. Levitt had her exhibition of color work at the Museum of Modern Art some two years before Mr. Eggleston.
“When you think about Walker Evans or Henri Cartier-Bresson, they’re all really famous and Helen Levitt is not,” Mr. Moser said. “And of course, that’s also how art history is written. Very often women photographers or women artists are overlooked, and that’s a thing that we wanted to correct.”
2019年免费四肖八码免费【东】【方】【令】【音】【眼】【神】【露】【出】【杀】【气】，【她】【背】【对】【着】【奇】【郁】，【他】【还】【不】【知】。 “【你】【问】【神】【华】【山】【做】【什】【么】？”【她】【已】【近】【冰】【冷】【的】【语】【气】。 “【姑】【娘】，【我】【是】【因】【为】【好】【奇】，【随】【便】【问】【问】。”【他】【当】【然】【不】【能】【说】【实】【话】。 “【不】【知】【道】。”【东】【方】【令】【音】【无】【意】【与】【他】【周】【旋】，【径】【直】【离】【开】【了】，【只】【留】【下】【这】【样】【一】【句】【话】。 【若】【不】【是】【因】【为】【怀】【中】【的】【紫】【季】，【她】【一】【定】【亲】【手】【把】【他】【赶】【出】【去】。【希】【望】【他】【能】【够】【尽】
“【动】【手】【的】【人】【是】【谁】？”【穆】【悠】【然】【问】【道】。 【天】【马】【行】【空】【的】【问】【题】，【但】【是】【电】【话】【那】【边】【的】【周】【启】【明】【反】【应】【很】【快】。 “【一】【个】【熟】【人】。”【周】【启】【明】【道】，【虽】【然】【没】【看】【到】【人】，【但】【是】【光】【听】【语】【气】【就】【知】【道】【他】【此】【刻】【正】【慵】【懒】【的】【躺】【在】【某】【个】【柔】【软】【的】【沙】【发】【上】，【懒】【散】【而】【又】【闲】【适】，【漫】【不】【经】【心】【的】【样】【子】，【像】【只】【犯】【困】【的】【猫】【儿】。 【庄】【算】【看】【看】【前】【面】【的】【路】，【在】【看】【看】【穆】【悠】【然】，【她】【的】【眉】【头】【微】【微】【皱】【起】
【楚】【玉】【倒】【了】【一】【杯】【茶】【水】，【递】【道】【了】【德】【妃】【的】【手】【边】： “【额】【娘】，【您】【先】【不】【要】【着】【急】。【您】【叫】【了】【我】【们】【进】【宫】，【那】【里】【就】【是】【您】【的】【错】【了】？ 【这】【不】【是】【皇】【阿】【玛】【忽】【然】【到】【了】【吗】？【孩】【子】【又】【想】【要】【出】【去】。 【您】【莫】【要】【担】【心】，【您】【想】，【皇】【阿】【玛】【抱】【着】【孩】【子】【出】【去】，【又】【有】【谁】【会】【不】【长】【眼】【的】【敢】【伤】【了】【孩】【子】？ 【再】【者】，【皇】【阿】【玛】【既】【然】【抱】【着】【弘】【晖】【出】【去】【了】，【一】【定】【就】【会】【护】【好】【他】【的】，【再】【不】【济】【六】【弟】
【百】【里】【子】【玉】【猛】【地】【抬】【起】【头】【来】，“【清】【清】，【你】【这】【是】【答】【应】【了】？” 【蓝】【清】【悦】【眼】【中】【含】【泪】，【脸】【颊】【通】【红】，【羞】【涩】【地】【点】【了】【点】【头】。 【再】【次】【得】【到】【肯】【定】【的】【答】【复】，【百】【里】【子】【玉】【的】【脸】【上】【瞬】【间】【绽】【放】【开】【一】【个】【足】【以】【亮】【瞎】【人】【眼】【的】【笑】【容】，【一】【把】【抱】【起】【蓝】【清】【悦】，【原】【地】【转】【起】【圈】【来】，【哪】【里】【还】【有】【刚】【刚】【那】【温】【润】【公】【子】【的】【模】【样】。 “【亲】【一】【个】，【亲】【一】【个】。”【周】【遭】【的】【人】【笑】【着】【起】【哄】。 【此】【时】
【她】【现】【在】【还】【感】【觉】，【自】【己】【站】【在】【这】【里】，【是】【不】【是】【显】【的】【太】【多】【事】【了】【啊】？ 【就】【自】【己】【现】【在】【这】【个】【样】【子】，【是】【不】【是】【应】【该】【离】【开】【这】【里】【啊】？ 【可】【是】【不】【对】【啊】，【明】【明】【就】【是】【雷】【茉】【儿】【叫】【住】【自】【己】【的】，【明】【明】【就】【是】【他】【自】【己】【这】【个】【样】【子】【的】。 【说】【不】【定】，【如】【果】【自】【己】【现】【在】【走】【了】【的】【话】，【她】【可】【能】【还】【会】【发】【疯】。 【根】【据】【他】【这】【个】【样】【子】，【是】【会】【这】【样】【的】【没】【错】【啊】。 【然】【后】，【她】【觉】【得】【自】【己】【也】
【这】【一】【天】， 【科】【院】【超】【算】【中】【心】， 【郝】【仁】【正】【在】【自】【己】【的】【办】【公】【室】【里】，【不】【断】【滑】【动】【着】【鼠】【标】【的】【滚】【轮】【键】，【看】【着】【屏】【幕】【上】【的】【新】【闻】【报】【道】，【基】【本】【上】【都】【是】【批】【评】【徐】【茫】【的】【量】【子】【计】【算】【机】【工】【程】，【其】【中】【大】【部】【分】【人】【表】【示】，【花】【了】【这】【么】【多】【钱】【去】【研】【究】【什】【么】【量】【子】【计】【算】【机】，【而】【华】【国】【还】【有】【很】【多】【人】【都】【吃】【不】【上】【饭】。 【万】【万】【没】【有】【想】【到】， 【在】【这】【样】【的】【留】【言】【下】【竟】【然】【跟】【帖】【数】【千】【条】，【其】【内】【容】
【纳】【瓦】【斯】【看】【着】【面】【前】【的】【卡】【里】【克】，【他】【突】【然】【生】【出】【了】【一】【种】【感】【觉】：【好】【像】【面】【前】【站】【着】【的】【不】【是】【一】【名】【对】【方】【球】【员】，【而】【是】【木】【雕】【泥】【塑】【一】【般】！ 【卡】【里】【克】【的】【脸】【上】【写】【满】【了】【风】【轻】【云】【淡】，【似】【乎】【对】【这】【次】【攻】【门】【无】【所】【谓】；【但】【是】【纳】【瓦】【斯】【又】【觉】【得】，【这】【个】【球】【好】【像】【自】【己】【怎】【么】【防】【守】【也】【守】【不】【住】。 【卡】【里】【克】【缓】【缓】【的】【后】【退】，【不】【慌】【不】【忙】【的】【后】【退】…… “【曼】【联】【队】【长】【卡】【里】【克】【会】【罚】【进】【这】【个】【球】【吗】